A third party who deals with a person claiming to be an agent

This makes it clear that the principal is the grantor, but that the agent is signing the document on behalf of the principal. The acknowledgment is the place where a notary public certifies that the person signing the document is who he or she claims to be.

Insurance Claim Definition

There are specific rules that a notary must follow to comply with state law. These rules include verification of the identity of the person signing the document, stamping the document with a notary seal, and in some states keeping a record of the transaction in the notary log. Because the notary must ensure that the person signing the document is who he or she claims to be, the notary acknowledgment should list the person who is physically signing the document.

The notary acknowledgment should include appropriate language to make it clear that the agent is signing on behalf of the principal for example, Scott Fitzgerald as Agent for Ernest Hemingway. Our Deed Generator automatically includes the appropriate language when the property will be conveyed using a power of attorney. Even though a power of attorney can be used to convey real estate, title insurance companies are not required to accept the power of attorney. If the title insurance company refuses to insure title to property previously conveyed by power of attorney, there could be a cloud on title that affects the property value.

There are a few steps you can take to help ensure that title companies are comfortable with property conveyed by power of attorney. There are different types of powers of attorney. A springing power of attorney comes into effect at a later time, usually upon the mental or physical disability of the principal. A durable power of attorney , on the other hand, becomes effective immediately when it is signed and remains in effect when the principal becomes mentally or physically disabled.

The distinction between springing and durable powers of attorney can be important.

If the power of attorney is a springing power of attorney, the title examiner may want to see proof that the principal was disabled when the agent signed the deed. Most powers of attorney are structured as durable powers of attorney, so this is usually not an issue. But you should review the power of attorney to be sure that the principal does not need to be disabled for the power of attorney to become effective.

You should also be sure that the power of attorney includes language authorizing the transfer of real estate.

In this section

If the power of attorney is a limited power of attorney, it may only authorize a few actions. If it is a general power of attorney, it may include sweeping language that gives the agent broad authority to do just about anything on behalf of the principal. Either way, you should be sure that the power of attorney includes language authorizing the agent to transfer real estate. Many title examiners will want proof that there is a valid power of attorney naming the agent to act on behalf of the principal.

The best way to reassure the title examiner is to attach the power of attorney to the deed when the deed is filed. This could prevent title issues in the future, when the power of attorney may be difficult to locate. A power of attorney is a fiduciary instrument. This means that the agent must only act on behalf of the principal and not to benefit the agent.

Medical expenses can also be claimed for treatment of the injury that was the cause of death. For property damage, surveyor's report, original bills from an authorised garage and motor vehicle inspection report are required to quantify the loss. The premium rates for third party insurance are fixed by the IRDAI and are the same for all insurance companies.

However, the amount you pay as third-party premium may differ according to the engine capacity of your car. For instance, while a smaller Hyundai i10 owner has to pay around Rs 1,, for a Toyota Altis, the annual third party insurance premium is around Rs 5, This fixed third party insurance rate is reviewed by the authority annually and adjustments, usually an increase, are made if needed. Complex Claims Process Making a third party motor claim is not easy. The complex course begins with filing an FIR with the police and obtaining a charge sheet, which, as we all know is a mammoth task in itself.

After this, one has to approach a motor claims lawyer who files a case in a special court, the Motor Accident Claims Tribunal.

Insurance Claim

Civil courts cannot decide road accident compensation claims. The case has to be either filed in the tribunal with jurisdiction over the area where the accident occurred or with the tribunal with jurisdiction over the area where the claimant or the defendant resides. The court then hears both sides, examines the evidence, and fixes the liability. If the decision is in your favour, you get compensated for your loss. However, this three-step process is not all that simple as rules differ according to scenario and the insurance coverage that both parties have. This makes the ground reality far more complicated than what it appears on paper.

When A has only a basic third-party insurance Those who do not have a comprehensive motor cover are on their own as they can only claim compensation under the third party insurance of the other person i. Your own insurer will neither compensate you nor help you file a complaint as the insurance agreement you have with your own insurer is solely for your liability towards any third-party for damages. However, in this case, your own car has been damaged which is not covered under your third party contract.

So, unless you have an own damages cover, the only way to get compensated is to track down the other vehicle and lodge a complaint against the other party. The onerous task here is establishing the other party's fault in court. So, you cannot be sure of getting any money until the court decides in your favour. Moreover, it is not necessary that a favourable decision will mean that you get the full amount you had filed for. The other party and his insurer will only pay you the amount awarded by the court. The above process would be the same irrespective of whether B has comprehensive motor insurance or third party insurance only.

The premise is that only parties to contracts should be able to sue to enforce their rights or claim damages as such. However, the doctrine has proven problematic because of its implications for contracts made for the benefit of third parties who are unable to enforce the obligations of the contracting parties.


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In England and Wales, the doctrine has been substantially weakened by the Contracts Rights of Third Parties Act , which created a statutory exception to privity enforceable third party rights. Privity of contract occurs only between the parties to the contract, most commonly contract of sale of goods or services. Horizontal privity arises when the benefits from a contract are to be given to a third party. Vertical privity involves a contract between two parties, with an independent contract between one of the parties and another individual or company.

If a third party gets a benefit under a contract, it does not have the right to go against the parties to the contract beyond its entitlement to a benefit. An example of this occurs when a manufacturer sells a product to a distributor and the distributor sells the product to a retailer. The retailer then sells the product to a consumer.


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  8. There is no privity of contract between the manufacturer and the consumer. This, however, does not mean that the parties do not have another form of action: for instance, in Donoghue v.

    The Grantor’s Name in the Vesting Paragraph

    Donoghue bought her a bottle of ginger beer, which contained the partially decomposed remains of a snail. Since the contract was between her friend and the shop owner, Mrs. Donoghue could not sue under the contract, but it was established that the manufacturer was in breach of a duty of care owed to her.

    Accordingly, she was awarded damages in the tort of negligence for having suffered gastroenteritis and "nervous shock". Prior to there existed decisions in English Law allowing provisions of a contract to be enforced by persons not party to it, usually relatives of a promisee, and decisions disallowing third party rights. Easton , where a contract was made for work to be done in exchange for payment to a third party.

    When the third party attempted to sue for the payment, he was held to be not privy to the contract, and so his claim failed. This was fully linked to the doctrine of consideration, and established as such, with the more famous case of Tweddle v. In this case the plaintiff was unable to sue the executor of his father-in-law, who had promised to the plaintiff's father to make payment to the plaintiff, because he had not provided any consideration to the contract.

    The doctrine was developed further in Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre v. Selfridge and Co. Privity of Contract played a key role in the development of negligence as well.